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Oceanography : an invitation to marine science
Garrison, Tom, 1942-2016, author
Boston, MA, USA National Geographic Learning/Cengage Learning, [2016]
Note continued: Stinging Cells Define the Phylum Cnidaria -- 15.3.The Worm Phyla Are the Link to Advanced Animals -- 15.4.Advanced Invertebrates Have Complex Bodies and Internal Systems -- The Phylum Mollusca Is Exceptionally Diverse -- Insight from a National Geographic Explorer 15.1 -- The Phylum Arthropoda Is the Most Successful Animal Group -- A Water Vascular System Is Unique to the Phylum Echinodermata -- 15.5.Construction of Complex Chordate Bodies Begins on a Stiffening Scaffold -- Not All Chordates Have Backbones -- Vertebrate Chordates Have Backbones -- 15.6.Vertebrate Evolution Traces a Long and Diverse History -- 15.7.Fishes Are Earth's Most Abundant and Successful Vertebrates -- Jawless Fishes Are the Most Primitive Living Fishes -- Sharks Are Cartilagenous Fishes -- Bony Fishes Are the Most Abundant and Successful Fishes -- 15.8.Fishes Are Successful Because of Unique Adaptations -- Insight from a National Geographic Explorer 15.2 -- Movement, Shape, and Propulsion -- Maintenance of Level -- Gas Exchange -- Feeding and Defense -- 15.9.Sea Turtles and Marine Crocodiles Are Ocean-Going Reptiles -- 15.10.Some Marine Birds Are the World's Most Efficient Flyers -- 15.11.Marine Mammals Include the Largest Animals Ever to Have Lived -- Order Cetacea-the Whales -- Order Carnivora-Oceanic Carnivores -- Spotlight Figure 15.34 -- Order Sirenia-Manatees and Their Kin -- How Do We Know? 15.1: The Age of Marine Organisms -- Chapter in Perspective -- Questions from Students -- Terms and Concepts to Remember -- Study Questions -- Global Geoscience Watch -- 16.1.Marine Organisms Live in Communities -- 16.2.Communities Consist of Interacting Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers -- Physical and Biological Environmental Factors Affect Communities -- Organisms within a Community Compete for Resources -- Growth Rate and Carrying Capacity Are Limited by Environmental Resistance -- Population Density and Distribution Depend on Community Conditions -- 16.3.Marine Communities Change as Time Passes -- 16.4.Examples of Shoreline Marine Communities -- Rocky Intertidal Communities Are Densely Populated Despite Environmental Rigors -- How Do We Know? 16.1: What Influences Intertidal Community Structure -- Sand and Cobble Beach Communities Exist in One of Earth's Most Rigorous Habitats -- Salt Marshes and Estuaries Often Act as Marine Nurseries -- 16.5.Examples of Shallow Benthic and Open-Ocean Marine Communities -- Seaweed Communities Shelter Organisms -- Coral Reef Are Earth's Most Densely Populated and Diverse Communities -- Planktonic Communities Are Common throughout the Ocean -- Insight from a National Geographic Explorer 16.1 -- The Open-Ocean Community Is Concentrated at the Surface -- 16.6.Examples of Deep-Sea Marine Communities -- The Deep-Sea Floor Is Earth's Most Uniform Community -- Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps Support Diverse Communities -- Insight from a National Geographic Explorer 16.2 -- Whale-Fall Communities Represent Unique Opportunities -- 16.7.Organisms in Communities Can Live in Symbiosis -- Chapter in Perspective -- Questions from Students -- Terms and Concepts to Remember -- Study Questions -- Global Geoscience Watch -- 17.1.Marine Resources Are Subject to the Economic Laws of Supply and Demand -- 17.2.Physical Resources -- Petroleum and Natural Gas Are the Ocean's Most Valuable Resources -- How Do We Know? 17.1: Where to Find New Oil Reserves -- Large Methane Hydrate Deposits Exist in Shallow Sediments -- Marine Sand and Gravel Are Used in Construction -- Deep-Sea Mining -- Salts Are Harvested from Evaporation Basins -- Freshwater Is Obtained by Desalination -- 17.3.Renewable Sources of Marine Energy -- Windmills Are Effective Energy Producers -- Waves, Currents, and Tides Can Be Harnessed to Generate Power -- 17.4.Biological Resources -- Fish, Crustaceans, and Molluscs Are the Ocean's Most Valuable Biological Resources -- Most of Today's Fisheries Are Not Sustainable -- Much of the Commercial Catch Is Discarded as "Bycatch" -- Marine Botanical Resources Have Many Uses -- Organisms Can Be Grown in Controlled Environments -- Whaling Continues -- New Drugs and Bioproducts of Oceanic Origin Are Being Discovered -- 17.5.Nonextractive Resources Use the Ocean in Place -- Spotlight Figure 17.26 The Container Cycle -- 17.6.The Law of the Sea Governs Marine Resource Allocation -- The United Nations Formulated the International Law of the Sea -- The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone Extends 200 Nautical Miles from Shore -- Chapter in Perspective -- Questions from Students -- Terms and Concepts to Remember -- Study Questions -- Global Geoscience Watch -- 18.1.An Introduction to Marine Environmental Issues -- 18.2.Marine Pollutants May Be Natural or Human Generated -- Pollutants Interfere with an Organism's Biochemical Processes -- Insight from a National Geographic Explorer 18.1 -- Oil Enters the Ocean from Many Sources -- Cleaning a Spill Always Involves Trade-offs -- Toxic Synthetic Organic Chemicals May Be Biologically Amplified -- Heavy Metals Can Be Toxic in Very Small Quantities -- Eutrophication Stimulates the Growth of Some Species to the Detriment of Others -- Plastic and Other Forms of Solid Waste Can Be Especially Hazardous to Marine Life -- Phytoplankton Are in Decline -- Pollution Is Costly -- 18.3.Organisms Cannot Prosper if Their Habitats Are Disturbed -- Bays and Estuaries are Especially Sensitive to the Effects of Pollution -- Introduced Species Can Disrupt Established Ecosystems -- Coral Reefs Are Stressed by Environmental Change -- Rising Ocean Acidity Is Jeopardizing Habitats and Food Webs -- Sound Is Also a Pollutant -- Spotlight Figure 18.23 -- 18.4.Marine Protected Areas Are Refuges -- 18.5.Earth's Climate Is Changing -- Earth's Surface Temperature Is Rising -- Spotlight Figure 18.24 -- Mathematical Models Are Used to Predict Future Climates -- Can Global Warming Be Curtailed? -- 18.6.What Can Be Done? -- Chapter in Perspective -- Questions from Students -- Terms and Concepts to Remember -- Study Questions -- Global Geoscience Watch.
On Reserve at Kresge GC11.2 .G37 2016

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